Egypt has a very long and proud history, is really a country which has been a rustic for many 1000's of years. Perhaps not one other truly ancient nation (2,Five centuries old and also over) has fascinated the West a lot more than Egypt.
One of the most important things to understand concerning the good reputation for Egypt is the need for the Nile on its economy, identity, and religion. It is very useful to have some understanding of the history of Egypt including an awareness of the religion and gods of Egypt before visiting to ensure that one can get the most out of visiting.
The Background of Egyptian History
For over 3,000 years ancient Egypt was probably the most powerful and influential civilizations. This era of time could be regarded as from 3100 BC to 30 BC when it was a province of Rome (although for centuries before that it had been ruled by Greeks and Persians).
When people think of ancient Egypt, they normally think of the times before it was absorbed through the Persians (or Achaemenids). Egypt's history can be broken up into the following periods.
- Prehistoric Egypt: Pre-3150 BC
- Ancient (Dynastic) Egypt: 3150 BC to 332 BC
- Grece-Roman Egypt: 332 BC to 629 AD
- Medieval Egypt: 641 AD to 1517 AD
- Early Modern Egypt: 1517 to 1914
- Late Modern Egypt: 1882 to Present
For this article, we will only be concerned about ancient dynastic Egypt from 3150 BC to 322 BC. It's also important to keep in mind that Egypt was closely associated with other areas around the globe and in ancient times Egypt ruled territories in what is now Sudan, Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria, Israel, and Palestine.
Ancient Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first king from the First Dynasty, Narmer/Menes. The Egyptians would mostly rule themselves from then before the 6th century then these were ruled by successions of Empires.
The Old Kingdom Of Egypt
Broadly speaking the traditional dynastic duration of Egypt is broken into three golden periods – the Old Kingdom, the center Kingdom, and the New Kingdom with intermate periods.
- Early Dynastic Period: 3150 to 2686 BC
After ancient Egypt was unified by Pharaoh Menes/Narmer in 3150 BC, it began a number of dynasties that would rule Egypt for the next 3,000 years. Following the early dynastic period, Egypt entered that old Kingdom which spanned from around 2700 -2200 BC.
- Period: Third Dynasty towards the Sixth Dynasty (2686 -2181 BC)
This was a golden age and it is known as the “Age from the Pyramids” or the “Age from the Pyramid Builders.” It had been during this time period that the great pyramids of Giza were built by the Pharaohs Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure.
The Old Kingdom is most commonly thought to be the period from the Third Dynasty towards the Sixth Dynasty (2686 -2181 BC). It had been throughout the Old Kingdom the King of Egypt became a living god who ruled absolutely.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt
After the collapse of the Old Kingdom, at one time of political upheaval for about 150 years known as the First Intermediate Period. This turned into the center Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom of Egypt was the 2nd from the three “golden ages” of ancient Egypt.
- 1st Intermediate Period: 2181 to 2055 BC
This period lasted from around 2040 to 1782 BC and stretched from the reunification of Egypt underneath the reign of Mentuhotep II within the Eleventh Dynasty to the end from the Twelfth Dynasty.
- Period: 2040 to 1782 BC
- Peak: Throughout the Reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat III
- End: The center Kingdom Was Delivered to An End By the Invasion from the Hyksos
During this time, Osiris became the most important deity in popular religion. The Middle Kingdom will come to an end with the invasion from the Hyksos. They were the very first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, eventually, they were driven out by an Upper Egyptian force led by Ahmose I.
The New Kingdom Of Egypt
After the Hyksos were driving the New Kingdom began with the Eighteenth Dynasty. The New Kingdom lasted from around 1550 -1070 BC and marked the biggest growth of the empire to include areas of Nubia and also the Levant. It marked the peak of Egypt's power and also the most prosperous time.
- 2nd Intermediate Period: 1650 to 1550 BC
- Period: 1550 -1070 BC
- Notable Pharaohs: Tutankhamun, Ramesses II, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten
- Expansion: During This Time Egypt Expanded and Became A business
It was during this period the kings of Egypt took on the title of “Pharaoh.” This era is famous for probably the most famous Pharaohs including Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, and Ramesses II.
The empire eventually declined due to increasing droughts, famine, riots, and corruption of officials. The pharaohs grew so weak that eventually, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes became the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt.